Current Events, Interns

Migrant Caravan

caravan

By SJPJC Intern Kathya

     The migrant caravan is heading towards the United States and Mexico Border. President Donald Trump has already sent out 5,200 troops to the border1. The migrant caravan originally started with 160 people from Honduras. As they made their 2,095 mile trip, more people joined them. These people are fleeing poverty and violence from their native countries.They plan on seeking new opportunities in the United States or Mexico.

     Many of the people want to have opportunities to succeed in life. They want their children to have a better life than they have had. It is unfortunate that they have to go to these extremes. The migrant caravan has been making their trip by foot. They have very limited food access and no shelter as they travel. They are travelling with whatever items they can carry on their backs. No person should have to go to these extremes to be able to have a good life.

     Fortunately, as the migrants crossed through Mexico, President Enrique Pena-Nieto announced the “You Are Home” program2. Migrants were given the opportunity to shelter, jobs, medical attention, and education. Only 111 migrants accepted to be part of this program. The rest of the caravan will try to apply for asylum in the United States.

     Now we hope that the United States will be able to grant some of these migrants asylum. They have made a terrible journey to seek a new life, where they are free from poverty and violence. Their claims for asylum deserved to be heard. Someone needs to help the migrants.

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Uncategorized

The Killing of Gaza

Photo retrieved from: Killinggaza.com

Written by a Fall 2018 intern at SJPJC: DO

On September 13, I attended a screening on the film Killing Gaza at the San Jose Peace and Justice Center. Prior to watching the film, I did no have knowledge about the violence and essentially genocide that is occurring within the Gaza strip. While watching the documentary, one cannot help but feel disgusted for the atrocities the Palestinian people have had to live through. the demolition of the Palestinian people is being ignored on an international scale due to the lack of media coverage it receives. The people of Gaza are living in rubble as a result of the constant air strikes. What justifies the killing of innocent people? The Israeli forces have engaged in countless human rights violations including: the right to life and liberty and freedom from torture.

Syria is not the only country that is currently experiencing displacement due to war and violence, but as well as the citizens of Gaza. I urge others to watch this documentary or research further information about the conflict between the people living in Gaza and the Israelis because they are in need of humanitarian assistance. If you would like to learn additional information about the issues please visit this website: https://bdsmovement.net/what-is-bds

Uncategorized

Cruel and Unusual Punishment at the Southern Border

This blog was written by Ivan, an Fall 2018 intern at our Center.

Earlier this year in April, Attorney General Jeff Sessions announced that the Department of Justice (DOJ) will enact a “zero-tolerance” immigration policy. This decision was made in response to a report from the Department of Homeland Security that showed an increase in illegal border crossings from March 2017 to March 2018. In spite of the Trump Administration and Session’s constant rhetoric of “keeping families at the border together,” new reports indicate that from May to June more than 2,500 children were separated from their parents following Session’s zero-tolerance immigration policy. Many children remain caged in detention, shelters, and foster care unaware of their fate. Recently, in September, migrant children in Tornillo, Texas were moved to another detention facility in the middle of the night.

To make matters worse, the Trump Administration just declared that deported parents can lose custody of their children to foster parents, according to an investigation by the Associated Press (AP). According to the AP, there is a disconnect between state and federal authorities that could allow state judges to grant custody of children to foster families without even notifying the parents. One has to ask, is this constitutional? What happened to “we’re going to keep families together?” Undoubtedly, Trump’s immigration policy has resulted in a humanitarian crisis coupled with a series of constitutional violations, including forcing parents to sign waivers agreeing to leave their children behind. At this pace, undocumented children will be used as slave workers, all legal under constitutional law it seems.

History, Volunteers

Henry Kissinger: War Criminal

kissingerKissinger’s Legacy

(National Security Adviser 1969-1975, U.S. Secretary of State 1973-1975)

When I read in depth about Henry Kissinger, it became clear that the United States isn’t as democratic as we claim that it is. The world’s watchdog, United States’s Henry Kissinger led a collusion to overthrow Chile’s government, funded opposition to its democratically elected president, and imposed U.S. supported terrorism on Chile.

The United States claims to be this great republican democracy. But when Chile, an important economic partner, elects a socialist, the United States takes on the responsibility to show Chile the superior political system, tyranny. Largely ignoring Chile’s politics and sovereignty, Kissinger threw away Chile’s political process and chased after U.S. economic interests.

His acts violated the U.S.’s principles of democracy and also uses this mentality that the United States knows what is best for Chile. It ignored the society, economics, and politics of a foreign country in favor of U.S.’s interests. Not only that but he also disrespected the U.S. political process.

Salvador Allende, a socialist who worked toward the interests of the working class, was elected by the Chilean population in 1970.

Kissinger feared the likely success of the elected socialist Allende leading to the loss of dependence from Chile’s copper mines on American entities. Without publicly declaring war, Kissinger sought to dismantle Allende’s presidency during friendly relations between the U.S. and Chile.

Responding with protecting the United States, his plan was tied to the fear of U.S. security being threatened.

The U.S. government wanted to prevent the “domino effect” of Chile’s big, “nasty” socialism, causing other Latin American countries following suit. The U.S. found that socialism threatened American liberties and capitalism, and feared the loss of Latin American countries as economic partners. But the having civil responsibilities and representing ideas of the public aren’t mutually exclusive.

Elected by the population and running a socialist campaign, Allende was referred to as democratic socialist. During his leadership, economic and political decisions were based on public need and collective ownership. He transferred power from private businesses to the state and had the state take over agricultural entities; thereby preventing the development of private property rights and private businesses.

Upon the election of Allende, CIA director Richard Helms met with Kissinger and Nixon to stop Allende from taking up Chile’s presidency. These government officials colluded in Virginia to  kidnap and assassinate Allende. They planned to subvert Allende’s regime.

The executive branch conspired against Allende’s regime without the knowledge of Congress. The Congress, elected by the people, is there to represent the people’s interests and enforce checks and balances. The United States, a so called republican democracy, didn’t even meet the minimum requirements of representing the public’s interests.

Kissinger, Helms, and Nixon sought assistance from Chilean General Rene Schneider to enlist Chile’s military to control Allende’s election. But Schneider didn’t want the military to be involved. A firm holder of Chile’s constitution, Schneider opposed the U.S. planned coup. He wanted to uphold Chile’s democratic process. Kissinger then decided that General Schneider should be taken out too.

Later, Kissinger convinced General Roberto Viaux, a military leader connected to the neo-fascist political party Patria y Libertad, to help the U.S. government get rid of General Schneider. The U.S. government supplied machine guns and tear gas to Viaux to execute the coup.

Imagine that. The United States supplied the opposition of another nation’s elected president with weapons, to take out Allende.

Under Kissinger’s authority, the CIA funded two attempts to kidnap General Schneider. Viaux successfully headed the kidnapping and eventual murdered General Schneider in October 1970. The Chilean police called the kidnapping and death of Schneider a “straightforward  murder,” according to Christopher.

The CIA also funded anti-Allende institutions opposing Allende. It found that the CIA had provided $8 million to armed forces which opposed Allende’s government, to weaken Allende’s leadership.  It included $350,000 in bribes of Chile’s Congress.

In his first year of office, Allende enacted socialist policies. He nationalized businesses, including the copper corporations. This act meant that the state owned these mining businesses. Therefore, the preceding owners didn’t profit from them. The state took over agricultural land that was run, before, by landowners.  Short term, his policies slowed down inflation in Chile and improved employment among Chilean people.

Long term, however, his measures failed. Chile’s government nationalized copper corporations, despite relying on foreign investments. The nationalization of industries caused foreign investors to lose faith in investing in Chile and to stop investing there. He also printed out unapproved currency to erase the fiscal deficit, causing the currency to lose value.

Turmoil and discontent rose among the upper and middle classes.

Social unrest and the failure of the economy, combined with the U.S. government supported armed forces destabilizing Allende’s government, created the perfect storm for a coup.  

Regardless, the CIA was informed well in advance of the intention to usurp Allende, passing the information on to President Nixon a day before the coup was to take place. Lack of action from the Nixon administration demonstrated its involvement.

On September 11, 1973, the national police and armed forces used  tanks, troops, and fighter jets to attack Allende’s palace. The forces intimidated his supporters into surrender. Then the fighter jets blasted rockets at the palace.

Allende survived the attack. But he committed suicide with a an AK-47 gifted by Fidel Castro. He shot himself under the chin.

In summary, all of these events amounted to U.S. “state-supported terrorism.”

Let all of that sink in. Running a socialist platform, Allende was democratically elected. Kissinger feared Chile’s success with socialism and its pervasion throughout Latin America.

Using Kissinger’s foreign policy, the United States government violated the democracy of Chile. Conspiring and taking action to overthrow a democratically elected leader of a foreign country disregards the public interest of the American people.

Through gift money, and bribes to political groups and global media sources that opposed Allende, Kissinger and the U.S. directly influenced and strengthened opposition to Allende. Moreover, funding of Allende’s opposition directly infringed upon Chile’s sovereignty.

When the Nixon administration came to know about the plan for the coup, Kissinger didn’t warn Allende’s office. Their silence was deafening.

As Americans, we take pride in our democracy and acceptance of many political ideals. Kissinger’s foreign policy in Chile, however, infringed upon these American ideals.  His disrespect of the U.S. Constitution and disregard for Chile’s foreign democracy warrants that he should be held accountable. Lack of recognition of his human rights and political violations means that the United States isn’t willing to recognize its mistakes and isn’t consistent with democracy. Democracy is for the people, by the people. Kissinger’s actions were neither. We must hold him accountable for his actions.

Works Cited

The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica. “Salvador Allende.” Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 14 Feb. 2018, www.britannica.com/biography/Salvador-Allende

Hitchens, Christopher. “The Case Against Henry Kissinger.” The Case Against Henry Kissinger Part One by Christopher Hitchens, www.thirdworldtraveler.com/Kissinger/CaseAgainst1_Hitchens.html.

“Allende Dies in Coup.” History.com, A&E Television Networks, http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/allende-dies

Needleman, Ruth. “CIA Role in Chile Exposed.” Central Intelligence Agency

 

Interns

Gun Safety

gun-free-zone

On Wednesday, February 28, 2018, a threat was received about a shooting on the San Jose State University campus. The threat was written inside a women’s restroom in Dudley Moorhead Hall. The police were made aware of the situation and conducted a thorough investigation. Although it seemed like the threat was minor, they still took precautions and cancelled classes in that area and made students and faculty aware of the situation. Luckily, no shooting happened that day.

With the media coverage surrounding the school shooting in Parkland, Florida, people are  thinking about safety within schools and how often school shootings really happen. According to Everytown For Gun Safety, there has been approximately 160 school shootings from the years 2013-2015. This number includes a combination of multiple types of violence during the school shootings, including: suicides, homicides, injuries, and no injuries at all.

Since February 20, 2018, right after the Parkland school shooting, the number of school shooting rose to 18 in this year alone. Although, that number is very high, the definition of school shootings can be misconstrued. This number is accounted for shootings that has happened on school property/ grounds, meaning that some have been accidents, some did not involve students at all, and some happened after hours.

According to Snopes, as of February 20, 2018, the number of school shootings is 18. Of those 18 shootings, 7 were attack shootings that has been during school hours, 5 resulted in injuries. 2 happened outside of school hours, but on school property. 5 were accidental shots, 1 was a suicide attempt, and 2 were random stray bullets fired at the school.

I think that school shootings are starting to become this notion that people are afraid all the time, especially for students. It has started to instill fear in a lot of people. There has been some talk about militarization in the school system and wanting to arm teachers with weapons to protect students from potential attacks. This could seem like a semi good idea but in reality, it would potentially cause greater danger because teachers would still be untrained. Even if they do have training prior to carrying a weapon, under stress and pressure situations like an attack could potentially cause the training to go out of their head because they get scared and nervous.

I do believe that school shootings are an issue and it has more to do with how people are obtaining guns. But nonetheless, I feel turning the schools into a military station and arming teachers with weapons would not be the best route to take.

This article was written by BKJ, an intern at the San Jose Peace & Justice Center. 

Analysis of School Shootings. (2015, December 31). Retrieved March 03, 2018, from https://everytownresearch.org/reports/analysis-of-school-shootings/
Emery, D. (2018, February 16). How Many School Shootings Have Taken Place So Far in 2018? Retrieved March 10, 2018, from https://www.snopes.com/news/2018/02/16/how-many-school-shootings-in-2018/

Current Events, Volunteers

Bluefields, Nicaragua

dscf8484Bluefields, the previously prospering and booming colonial port in Nicaragua formerly ruled by Britain is now filled with slums and drug-trafficking.

Bluefields is the capital of the South Caribbean Autonomous Region (RACS) in Nicaragua. Composed of the largest population of people of African descent, Bluefields has a strong and direct relationship to Creole culture.

The British and Spanish held power in Bluefields during the 17th century. Spain conquered the Providencia settlement and inserted itself into the Miskito Indians’ African ancestral group. British then later extended control in Mosquitia and forced Africans to be slave labor, according to Disparate Diasporas.

Bluefields was sealed off from the rest of Nicaragua. This started with the British Protectorate of the Mosquitia (1710). The History Files website states that the Miskito natives claimed the colony of Greytown and controlled the indigenous communities. As the interest in the region declined, Britain assigned this protectorate to Honduras. Consequently, the Miskito rebelled against this, and power was transferred to Nicaragua.

A racial hierarchy prevailed alongside racial mixing of the various groups of people. For instance, the freed colored people were in the middle and the Maroons (unmixed Mosquitian former slaves of African descent) at the bottom.

Despite the British leaving Bluefields, slavery remained. Blackness was equated with servitude. Maroons defeated the British attempt to retain power over Bluefields by communicating to U.S. traders that they had been sold their freedom by Col. Robert Hodgson, a British imperialist of Nicaragua, and claimed direct descendancy from him. This confirmed their freedom and high social and racial hierarchy, according to Disparate Diasporas.

Separate from the directly oppressive colonial regimes, people inhabiting Bluefields referred to themselves as Miskito Coast Creole culture. The term described all the free English-Creole- speaking nonwhite people born in the Americas and residing in the Mosquitia. The Creoles that rose up held immense power and wealth. Among the Creoles, an elite held economic authority and possessed slaves. They used black and less wealthy populations as a source of labor.

During the late 1800’s, Bluefields became a trading center as a result of its trade with the U.S. According to BlackPast.org, Nicaragua established Spanish in place of English as the official language of the region.

It took approximately one hundred years until Bluefields regained its power from Nicaragua.

In 1988, the LA Times called Bluefields a “funky fishing port with a reggae beat and an Afro -Caribbean beat”. Now it is a region full of slums and run-down buildings.

Struck by Hurricane Joan and involved in the Nicaraguan Civil War in 1988, the population of Bluefields suffered economically. Essentially, the locals hold little social, political, and economic power. Although the Nicaraguan government is engaged in local affairs, it does not assist the local population.

Nacíon Comunitario Moskitia is an organization fighting for Bluefields’ autonomy and rights and is headed by Peter Moore. Through using a 1984 document, the organization will support the idea that the people from the self-governing region do not have to pay taxes to the Nicaraguan government. According to Tico Times, the document states “All income that the Miskito coast produces will be invested in their own benefit, preserving economic autonomy.

Moore states that Nicaragua does not respect the laws of the self-governing region by taxing it just like other regions of Nicaragua while not investing in Bluefields.

There is further division with the segregation of the four indigenous groups. Each group has their own institutions accorded to them.

Bluefields has changed but there are groups working on bettering the conditions of the region.

This article was written by RK, a volunteer at the San Jose Peace & Justice Center. Thank you for your research and sharing this important topic. 

Current Events, Volunteers

“The Kurdish Bike: Life in a Village in Kurdish Iraq” Forum at the Humanist House on 10.22.17

By Abiola A, a student volunteer from San Jose State University

This was a talk about Alesa Lightbourne’s experience in Kurdish Iraq where she went there to teach abroad but ended up learning about herself and the new country she was living in. Her book and her presentation were about her time there and the experiences she had with the people there in 2010.

Her story started with her son asking her a simple question, “if you could do anything, what would you do?” She turned her answer into action and decided to teach abroad in Kurdistan with the Peace Corps. She explained the origins and demographics of the Kurdish people which started with them spread out among the lands of Iraq, Iran, Turkey, and Syria. They are the world’s largest group of people without a country and have been a people since 500 B.C. The idea of “divide and conquer” was prevalent in the tactics of leaders like Winston Churchill and others like him, because they knew how much power people like the Kurds had if they united. Also, leaders knew the Kurds lived where the world’s major oil resource was. Having them split among their enemies’ lands made them easier to control.

When Alesa was there, she asked some men on the street what they wanted in life and they all said they wanted to be free and unified in Kurdistan. They were all once promised that they would be free but just like many other treaties, it fizzled out and the promise was never kept. Failed policies like that and the Al Anfel genocide are the reasons why Kurdistan is in the present state. The Al Anfel genocide led to the destruction of 4,000 of 4,655 towns, ruined their agriculture, and killed many men while placing women into concentration camps and brothels.

As for the Kurdistan Alesa lived in, she had an unexpected and last-minute change of plans in terms of her teaching. She expected to teach adults at a university but ended up teaching middle school because the students’ last teacher was kidnapped and they were without a teacher for two months. It was an adjustment for her because they have a stricter structure for teachers to follow for those grade levels compared to college students. For example, administrators and other staff would walk by the classrooms to make sure the students were on the scheduled lesson (by checking their page number) and made sure the teachers didn’t sit down every day.

Through teaching her students she learned the harsh reality of female genital mutilation. A girl went up to her and asked how Alesa felt when she was mutilated. Alesa was shocked learning that such a young girl thought it was normal all over the world for girls and women to have their clitorises cut off. Alesa found herself in conflict of learning to be tolerant of aspects of other cultures, including genital mutilation. She also was aware of how Kurdish women weren’t allowed to do things many women could do freely in the states like even riding a bike. She dressed like a man (or more gender neutral than she usually dressed) and explored Kurdistan on her “Blue Angel,” bike. While exploring she met a woman named Bezma, who was studying to become an English teacher. Alesa became well acquainted with Bezma and her family and learned how similar her life can be with people on the other side of the world, despite their apparent differences.

I don’t want to give too much away about her book but after attending her presentation, it was clear that it was a life changing experience. So much so that enriched her life in a way that motivated her to tell her story to the world in her book, The Kurdish Bike: Life in a Village in Kurdish Iraq.

If you haven’t read it, go check it out!

Current Events

In the Fields of the North / En los Campos del Norte

Within the intimate beige walls of History Park’s Arbuckle Gallery, History San Jose is currently displaying In the Fields of the North / En los Campos del Norte, an exhibit with hard-hitting oral histories and sobering photographs that bring to light the mistreatment and poor working conditions migrant workers face in trying to make a life for themselves.

This exhibit, translated into both English and Spanish, is a collection of works by David Bacon—a photojournalist, activist, and former union organizer. For over 30 years, Bacon traveled with these laborers during harvest seasons and even crossed borders with them as they searched for work.

Upon entering, the crackling of old black-and-white footage coming from a small television in the back greets visitors. The sounds of a rousing speech delivered by Cesar Chavez during the Delano Grape Strike and the voices of the United Farm Workers of America singing in unison fill the gallery.

The photographs on the walls depict workers of all ages toiling in the fields. Men, women, and children alike are shown packing celery and picking jalapeño chilies. The angle of the photos is what is most striking. Bacon gets up close and personal; he chooses to take many of the pictures from either at or below the eye level of the worker. This low perspective makes the photographs immersive and almost authentic. It is as if we are also bent over, laboring alongside the other workers in the field.

Bacon also delves into the home lives of these people, capturing photos of them in shacks and workers’ cabins. In these pictures, the workers stare directly back out at the viewer with intensely somber expressions as their eyes tell of sacrifice and struggle.

Scattered throughout the gallery are snippets of the oral histories of some of the migrant workers, including an aspiring rapper and a mother who longs to go back to school. They are touching, visceral, and raw. As they speak of the hopes, dreams, sacrifices, hardships, and pain of the workers, they also force us to confront the stories that make us most uncomfortable. They serve Bacon’s purpose of reminding us to not forget the humanity of those who produce our food.

Further into the gallery, there is an area for people to sit and read books relating to the lives and labor of migrant workers. This space is complete with beanbag chairs, bookshelves, and tables. It is a place for visitors to contemplate what they have already seen and to explore those topics from a different perspective, whether it is through one of the picture books, the biographies, or the informational books.

As a whole, the exhibit challenges people’s stereotypes about migrant workers and the perceptions that these workers come just to take away American jobs. It shows us that despite the arduous nature of the labor, migrant workers continue to endure it for the hope of a brighter future and a better quality of life for their children.

Bacon makes the point that awareness needs to be brought to the plight of migrant workers, but at the same time, he demonstrates that they are a resilient people; they are to be admired, not pitied. They have always found ways to overcome their hardships through solidarity, whether it was street protests or the formation of social justice organizations.

The next time you visit the grocery store or the supermarket, the next time you take a bite out of that strawberry, take a moment to think about where your food came from and the people who made it possible for you to complete your meal.

In fact, it is best said by Alma Flor Ada’s Gathering the Sun, one of the picture books in the gallery bookshelf: “Gracias te doy, campesino, por los frutos de tus manos.”

“Thank you, farmworker, for the fruits your hands have brought me.”

Take a visit to History Park’s Pacific Hotel to see this thought-provoking exhibit for yourself: History San Jose Website.

It will be on display until June 3.

Thank you Lan, a SJPJC Volunteer for writing this piece and sharing these important reminders.

Current Events

Genocide of the Rohingya People

In wake of the recent catastrophes occurring in and around the Gulf of Mexico (including Hurricanes Maria, Harvey, Katia, AND Jose; both earthquakes within Oaxaca and Puebla; and the United States’ political controversy of North Korean engagement) the attention of the United States media has retracted from the genocide of the Rohingya, which continues to this day.
The Rohingya, a Muslim-majority group of people situated in the north-west of Myanmar, bordering Bangladesh, have faced wave after wave of violence over the past half-century. For many years, the Myanmar government has consistently been placing pressure upon the Rohingya to evacuate. The government has restricted their rights to work and travel, and only limited numbers can enter certain professions like law and politics.

This conflict has resulted in many outbursts between the forces. It is believed that at least 1,000 Rohingya deaths have occurred to date from the Myanmar government. More than 270,000 people have fled to Bangladesh from the pressure of the Myanmar military, with others trapped on the border. Meanwhile, Bangladesh repeatedly denies them refuge as they view the Rohingya as an economic burden.

In an effort to investigate the genocide, the UN has been denied the visa rights to enter the country. British Prime Minister has ordered to cease training the Myanmar military until the forced migration and ethnic cleansing of the Rohingya halts. But in the meantime, where are the Rohingya people to take refuge: India and Australia have refused entertaining their company and only Thailand has offered temporary shelter.

With news of the natural disasters flooding United States airwaves, we must still keep in mind the atrocities being done in the world and take action against institutions that place human rights secondary to politics.

By Cameron, a SJPJC Intern.

Current Events

Referendums Refuted

World maps may seem different in a few years, adding more national identities and differing country borders to the existing diagrams. Many movements for national sovereignty have surged within the past few months, especially in Iraq, Cameroon, and Spain.

While the call for an independent Kurdistan has been apparent for over a decade with a referendum taking place in 2005, Israel has just recently openly supported the idea, legitimizing its plea for independence. Even though 92.7% of voters within the Kurdish northern region of Iraq supported annexation, the rest of the Middle East opposes an independent Kurdistan, especially to those nations with a large Kurdish population, including Turkey, Iran, Armenia, and Syria. The majority of opposition relates to a concern of the large oil deposits where Kurdistan would be located. Additionally, validating Kurdistan in Iraq allows for other Kurds to substantiate secession from their respective countries. Facing extreme opposition, the future of an independent Kurdish nation looks wary; however the resilient will of the Kurdish people shines brighter with hope than it ever has.

The most televised referendum occurred recently in the Spanish state of Catalonia. Though the Spanish government claims that the demonstration was illegal, 2.3 of the total 5.3 million citizens within the state of Catalonia voted, and just under 90% of them backed Catalonian independence. The Spanish government tried to intervene, injuring 844 people and closing off 319 of the 2,300 polling stations in the process. While the Spanish government claims the vote to be illegal, the extent to which they opposed it seems questionable: At what point does separatism allow violent conflict by government-sanctioned police?

The most explosive and yet least covered calls for independence happened within the last week in Cameroon. Over the past decades, conflicts between the English-speaking Northwest and Southwest regions with the French-speaking eastern regions. Last year, protests flared up with the national imposition of regulated French-taught schools. Within the last week, calls for independence from Cameroon have been violently throttled, resulting in 30 deaths, 50 wounded, and more than 200 arrested. The government has even sanctioned the restriction of internet use within the western regions in order to silence the separatists.

Rather than administer to the interests of the separatist groups, the national governments of Iraq, Spain, and Cameroon are completely disregarding the struggles of their constituents. This conflict of independence or national unity is larger than simply the idea of freedom and concerns existing economic ties, religious sects, GDP contribution, and political majority. However, government efforts to address minorities’ struggles seem virtually nonexistent, harming national unity, which is evident in how fervently these separatists are fighting to claim independence.

 

If you would like to learn more of the latest news on any of these situations, read the articles below:

Iraq: http://www.cbc.ca/news/world/iraq-rouhani-turkey-erdogan-meeting-1.4327874

Spain: http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-41503429

Cameroon: https://www.reuters.com/article/us-cameroon-politics-separatists

 

This article was written by Cameron, a SJPJC Intern.